Finches - Australian
PO  Box 126 Mitcham Vic 3132 ( Victoria, Australia )

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Beautiful Firetail Finch
Black throated Finch
Blue faced Parrot Finch
Chestnut breasted Finch
Crimson Finch
Diamond Firetail Finch
Double bar Finch
Gouldian Finch
Long tailed Finch
Masked Finch
Painted Finch
Pictorella Finch
Plum headed Finch
Red browed Finch
Red eared Firetail Finch
Star Finch
Yellow rumped Finch
Zebra Finch

. Australian Finches

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Softbills are listed separately.  Click on "Softbills" page.  Australian Softbills covered are:  Crimson Chat,  White fronted Chat,  Fairy Wrens,  Scarlet Honeyeater,  Banded Lapwing,  Masked Lapwing,  Silvereye,  Spotted Pardalote, and Red Wattlebird.  Plus foreign Softbills:  Bulbul,  Pekin Robin,  Skylark and Silver eared Mesia.

Finches and Softbills are generally quiet birds and unlikely to offend neighbours.  Most finches weigh less than 30 grams.  Many less than 20 grams.  Some 7 grams or less!!

Only Australian finches held by private aviculturists will be listed and for simplicity no hyphens have been used in the common names.

18 species of Australian finches can be kept and bred in captivity in Australia, subject to permit requirements of each Australian State or Territory.  Australian finches are not renown for their singing abilities but are colourful, entertaining birds suitable for a aviary.  Some species make ideal beginners birds such as Zebra finches and a good pair could be purchased for about $20 while some of the rarer species are only for the experienced specialist breeders and can cost $1500 or more per pair.  All 18 are covered on this site.

Australian finches belong to the order of birds called Passeriforms or perching birds.  Family = Estrildidae.

General Overview: 

All Australian finches must have

  1. Clean fresh water
  2. Adequate supply of nutritious balanced seed diet
  3. Provision of ripe or semi-ripe seed heads if applicable
  4. Access to clean fresh fruit/s and/or vegetables or leafy green vegetables where applicable
  5. Consistent supply of foods.  Sudden change/s of diet should be avoided.  The phasing in or phasing out of foods should be done on a gradual basis.  Sudden changes may cause digestive upsets in the parent birds and/or the young birds
  6. Good quality source of calcium and essential minerals such as found in cuttlefish bone or a quality commercial product
  7. Safe dry aviary devoid of vermin and pests
  8. A regular cage or aviary cleaning program
  9. Access to appropriate levels of sunlight in an aviary situation
  10. Protection from cold winds or draughts, winter rains and inappropriate bad weather conditions
  11. Protection from stressful summer weather such as extreme temperatures
  12. A safe place to build a nest and have sufficient materials to build a good quality nest.  After the first nest has been built, sufficient nest material must be made available to reline or rebuild subsequent nests or to totally build a new nest.
  13. The removal of young birds once they have become fully independent if there is a threat of aggression from a parent bird.  Allow sufficient aviary or cage space for the young to be safely housed while they grow to breeding age or ready to sell
  14. A place where sick, ill or stressed birds can be housed to maximize the chances of full recovery and to minimize the risk of transmitting parasites and/or pathogens to other birds
  15. An owner with the phone number and address of a local veterinarian and if available the nearest avian veterinarian
  16. A colony is more than two pairs. i.e. three or more pairs are required to form a successful colony
  17. Time to fully develop and mature before starting to breed, especially the hens

It is assumed that all the above items are practised and used in conjunction with the details outlined on each species web page.

  • The trapping of wild birds was deemed illegal in the mid 1980's.  All aviary birds are now descendants of captive bred birds.  It is essential to maintain lines of pure normal coloured birds as well as allowing the development of colour mutations for the aviary and pet bird trade.  Maintaining true-to-type body size and proportion should also be a prime concern when selecting breeding birds.  Non true-to-type birds should be sold as pets that are not to be bred from.  Traits such as the innate ability to build a nest similar in construction and quality to the wild birds should be recognised and recorded and may be used as a valid selling point when birds are sold or swapped for the prime purpose of breeding.  In generations to come it would be sad to see these finches all breeding in "budgie" breeding boxes or canary style nests stuffed with some grasses and some soft lining material.  Of course the construction of a wild bird nest is dependent on the provision of suitable places for the nests to be built.  Have we provided the best sites, shrubs and or trees for  the prospective parents?  Have we supplied them with the most suitable construction material and nest lining materials?
  • Families of finches:  There are 4 major Families of finches.  Australian finches belong to the family Estrildidae.  There are 18 species of Australian finches recognised and described.
  • Aviary: Finches are incapable of doing any serious damage to timber so the aviary frame and fittings can safely be made from inexpensive, easy to build materials such as hardwood and Pine softwood timber.  Serious consideration should be given to the use of mouse proof wire (approx 7 mm).  Although the mouse proof wire is more expensive, it is easier to keep the rodents out than to eradicate the rodents (mice etc.) once they have got inside.  Peace of mind, not pieces of baby birds or eggs.  In the southern Australian States, north facing, fully covered aviaries/flights are the most popular and successful for outside aviaries.
  • Cages:  Australian finches generally do better in an aviary than in cages or cabinets.  Breeding in an indoor cage or cabinet is usually unsuccessful.  Zebra finches are an exception and commonly housed and bred in canary style cages.
  • Cage fronts: Most Australian finches are naturally small birds.  If they are placed in an ornamental cage, or a cage that has a wire cage front that is typically used on canary or budgie cages, care must be taken to ensure none of the birds are able to get through the wire cage bars.  Initially the young are often smaller than the parent birds so if the young are bred in, or temporarily housed in, one of these cages, they will have to be monitored to ensure they do not escape.  Special finch cage fronts can be purchased and these wire fronts have a closer spacing between the bars and that prevents the birds getting their head through and makes escapes almost impossible.  Mouse proof wire mesh ( 7mm ) or 10mm wire mesh can be used for all or part of the cage front.
  • Diet:  In the wild, mostly grass seeds and insects but click on "Feeding birds" for more details on the nutrition of Australian Finches.  Specific species details are on the individual species page.  Many species spend a significant amount of time foraging on the ground.  Basic seed mix should include Canary seed, White French Millet, Japanese Millet, and Yellow and Red Panicum.  Other locally available seeds can be offered to the birds in separate bowls.  Green leafy vegetables, some fruits, seeding grasses and some flowering grasses such as Chickweed and Dandelions should be included in the diet.  Check with local aviculturalists to ascertain which green foods are safe and available.  Soaked or sprouted seed can be offered if available.  Apple, orange and pear can be offered to the birds and enjoyed by many species.  Livefood is essential for successful breeding of most Australian finches.  The supply of cuttlefish bone, calcium grits and insoluble grits should be available year round.
  • Eggs, egg products, egg shells, egg mixes.  Why do we feed egg products to birds?  They are not a balanced food for birds.  The mix can deteriorate rapidly in the warmer months.  There are better alternatives than feeding their relatives as part of their food.  Ban  the sale, promotion or use of eggs, egg products, egg shells, egg mixes as a food for birds.
  • Habitat:  In the wild they inhabit open forest, grassland or savannahs close to water.  Some have adapted well to cultivated farmlands and urban areas and the provision of more permanent water availability such as cattle and sheep water troughs.  In an aviary, shrubs and low growing trees with tall growing grasses can help imitate the natural habitat.
  • Shrubs and trees:  Only add plants (including grasses) that are known to be totally safe for birds.  Plants can provide an escape area or protection from more aggressive birds including a mate, give legs and feet exercise, some provide a minor source if insects, some provide a supply of nectars and or seeds, some leaves may be incorporated into a nest, provide a natural nest site, modify the environment of an aviary by providing some protection from wind, sun, rain.  Some rapidly growing shrubs or trees may need regular pruning to prevent roof damage and to help maintain the density of the plant/s.  A pruning routine can be used to ensure the plants do not encroach into the flight path of the birds or place too much shade in the aviary.  Plants within the aviary can influence the humidity, temperature and light levels within the aviary.  If you intend to add parrots to a planted aviary, the parrots will usually destroy most or all of the plants.  Too many finches in the aviary may also cause the plants to be defoliated faster than the plants can grow and end up dying because of defoliation.
  • Mutual preening:  Most Australian finches engage in mutual preening.  They maintain body contact while sleeping and resting and are often seen in close groups all maintaining contact with at least one other bird.
  • Nests:  Most nest are built in thick shrubs or small trees.  Hen and cock birds both build the nest.  The breeding nest is a covered dome shape and constructed from assorted lengths of grasses and lined with feathers, soft grasses or soft material and most have a side tunnel entrance.  Some species will also build a roosting nest which is used outside breeding season.  Start preparing for breeding season a month or two prior to the projected nesting date by purchasing or procuring all the necessary materials.  Don't wait till a bird starts laying eggs on the floor.  Don't get caught with insufficient materials for the birds to build a sturdy nest.  A poor quality nest may result in the loss of the eggs or young or the parent birds abandoning the partly constructed nest.  There is a wide range of materials available from Bird clubs, good pet shops and bird dealers.  Remember, the nest is only as good as the materials you provide.  Short lengths of teased natural fibre hessian, soft pampas grass heads and coconut fibre can be offered.  November grass and Swamp grass are favourites of the birds that line their nests and these grasses can be purchased from many Aviculture clubs or from bird dealers.  Synthetic nest materials should be avoided.
  • Nest inspection:  Nest inspections for finches is often very difficult and impractical.  Most finches are very intolerant of nest inspections and this practise may result in the loss of the whole clutch.
  • Breeding:  Most species average 3 to 6 white eggs per nest with the hen and cock bird sharing incubation and brooding.  Incubation often starts when the 3rd or 4th egg has been laid.  Eggs hatch in about 12 to 14 days and the young leave the nest about 20- 22 days later.  About 21 - 28 days later they are independent from their parents and may be removed to another aviary.  Care must be taken to ensure the young are not removed from the parent birds before they are fully independent.  Remove the young too early and the young bird may die of starvation.  By about 4 - 6 months of age they have developed their adult plumage.  In the wild, finches breed when their preferred foods and water are most abundant and environmental conditions are most suitable.  In the modern aviary or bird breeding room the environmental conditions can be manipulated and with the availability of quality feeds the birds may choose to breed all year round.  Breeders now have the control when and how many clutches their birds are allowed to raise each year.  Allowing the young birds to fully mature, limiting the finches to 2 or 3 clutches followed by a rest break, generally increases the number of years the birds can successfully produce strong healthy young.  This will also help the adult birds maintain better health, body weight and the increased resistance to diseases and or infections.  Fertility in an aviary averages about 75 - 80%.  The duration of incubation, fledging, and age to independence is influenced by the fitness and health of the parent birds, the quality and quantity of the foods, as well as the climatic conditions during these phases.  As a general statement, the colder the temperature, the longer the eggs take to hatch and slower the baby birds grow.
  • Leg rings:  Leg rings are placed on the young for several reasons.  Closed leg rings are ideal for those birds that have to be tracked or identified because of their genetic back ground.  Many young birds can leave the nest and appear similar to a parent bird, usually the hen.  If the generations are mixed it is easy to sell the wrong bird or pair up a parent bird with one of the daughters or sons.  It is extremely important to place the correct size ring on the bird and to do it at the correct age of the young bird and placed on the young bird using the correct methods.  Contact an experienced finch breeder, bird club or avian veterinarian if you have any doubts on any aspects of this practise.  Some parent birds may abandon the young or the nest if the nest is inspected or a breeder tries to place a ring on any of the young.  In this situation a split ring can be placed on the young after the young bird/s has left the nest.  Some species of finches can have a closed ring placed on their leg just after they have left the nest.  Wait too long and the bird's leg will have grown too large to safely place the ring on that bird.  Leg rings come in a wide range of single colours or multi-coloured and can also have numbers stamped on them.  A particular colour can, for example, be used to identify a breeding line or the year the bird was bred.  If split rings are used there is the risk of the ring being pulled off by the bird or of the ring accidentally coming off.  Equally the breeder can remove the split ring and replace it with another colour.  Replacing a split ring is useful when you want to change the partners of a mated pair or if a particular bird has turned out not to be the sex it was initially thought to be.  Inexperienced breeders should obtain professional advice before removing or replacing split ring/s.
  • Lifespan: Australian finches are generally good breeders.  Most finches are mature enough to start breeding at 12 months of age.  They will breed well for about 4 years, mostly from the second year to the fifth year inclusive.  Total life span is generally about 6 to 8 years.  Captive bred finches probably live about 2 years longer in a suitable aviary situation than in the wild. 
  • Breeding in the wild generally occurs when the food supply is most abundant and 2 or 3 clutches per breeding season is normal for most species if the conditions are suitable.

Government Regulations & By-Laws:  Refer to "Government Laws" web page.

Aviary Design:  A basic aviary design for finches or softbills is 3 metres long, 2 metres wide and about 2.1 metres high (10 x 6.5 x 7 feet), planted aviary, with a fully covered roof but click on  "Housing Birds" web page for more details on the housing of Australian Finches.

Top of -Australian finches- Page

Specific References:

  • Australian Aviculture
  • A/A Vol 60 No. 8 Aug 2006 Page 162-165 (The good - the bad - and the ugly by Mike Fidler).

  • A/A Vol 60 No. 8 Aug 2006 Page 157-159 (Life with birds - J. McGrath).

  • A/A Vol 60 No. 5 May 2006 Page 98-100 (Birding in the Kimberleys - 2005).

  • A/A Vol 60 No. 4 Apr 2006 Page 74-77 (Visit to Europe - finches, Dr Gary Fitt).
  • A/A Vol 60 No. 4 Apr 2006 Page 69-71 (Advantages & disadvantages of Bird keeping in hot climates)
  • A/A Vol 60 No. 2 Feb 2006 Page 29-30 (Finch management for juniors & beginners)
  • A/A Vol 59 No. 11 Nov 2005 Page 252-253 (Use of crop needles)
  • A/A Vol 59 No. 11 Nov 2005 Page 246-247 (Maintain those plants)
  • A/A Vol 59 No. 10 Oct 2005 Page 233-235 (The case for feeding Green foods - by Dr D. Madill).
  • A/A Vol 59 No. 7 July 2005 Page 162 - 163 (Return to Aviculture pt 2).
  • A/A Vol 59 No. 5 May 2005 Page 116 - 117 (Return to Aviculture pt 1).
  • A/A Vol 58 No. 10 Oct 2004 Page 221-222 (Status of Aust finches in Vic.)
  • A/A Vol 58 No. 9 Sept 2004 Page 210-211 (Book review-Atlas of Aust. birds).
  • A/A Vol 58 No. 8 Aug 2004 Page 186 - 191 (Domestication of captive finches)
  • A/A Vol 58 No. 8 Aug 2004 Page 172-176 (Interview - Gary Fitt)
  • A/A Vol 58 No. 7 Jul 2004 Page 154-155 (M. Fidler Nestboxes and perches).
  • A/A Vol 58 No. 7 Jul 2004 Page 145-148 (The basics).
  • A/A Vol 57 No. 10 Oct 2003 Page 223-225 (Suspended cages)
  • A/A Vol 57 No 9 Sept 2003 Page 206-207 (Avicultural lament - England).***Good read.
  • A/A Vol 57 No. 5 May 2003 Page 95-96 (P. Austin)
  • A/A Vol 57 No. 1 Jan 2003 Page 9-13 (Birdroom)
  • A/A Vol 56 No. 10 Oct 2002 Page 214-217
  • A/A Vol 56 No. 4 Apr 2002 Page 81-82 (Mineral block)
  • A/A Vol 56 No. 1 Jan 2002 Page 7 (R. Low)
  • A/A Vol 55 No. 8 Aug 2001 Page 176-176 (Breeding in Tasmania)
  • A/A Vol 55 No. 5 May 2001 Page 97-98 (Austerity diet)
  • A/A Vol 55 No. 5 May 2001 Page 119-120 (Temp. & feeding)
  • A/A Vol 55 No. 4 Apr 2001 Page 73-75 (M. Pollard)
  • A/A Vol 53 No. 10 Oct 1999 Page 215-217
  • A/A Vol 53 No. 5 May 1999 Page 97-98 (Mentoring)
  • A/A Vol 53 No. 4 Apr 1999 Page 82-86 (Interview R. Low)
  • A/A Vol  53 No. 1 Jan 1999  Page 15-16 (Improving the quality of our birds lives)
  • A/A Vol  52 No.11 Nov 1998 Page 256-258 (Pellet food)
  • A/A Vol  51 No. 11 Nov 1997 Page 243-250 (S. Gelis - Nutrition)
  • A/A Vol  51 No. 10 Oct 1997 Page 217-218 (Keeping birds naturally)
  • A/A Vol  51 No. 6 Jun 1997 Page 121-122 (Light)
  • A/A Vol  51 No.2  Feb 1997 Page 28-32 (Vic. population 1993-96)
  • A/A Vol  50 No. 5 May 1996 Page 118-119 (Status of Aust. finches in Vic. aviaries, Sept 1995)
  • A/A Vol  49  No. 6 Jun 1995 Page 143 (Perch)
  • A/A Vol  49  No. 5 May 1995 Page114-117 (Interview - C. Smeelie)
  • A/A Vol  48  No. 4 Apr 1994 Page 83-88 (Studbooks)
  • A/A Vol  48  No. 1 Jan 1994 Page 14 (Lights)
  • A/A Vol  47  No. 11 Nov 1993 Page 266-269 (Mixed collections)
  • A/A Vol  47  No. 6 Jun 1993 Page 125-127 (Indoor flights)
  • A/A Vol  47  No. 4 Apr 1993 Page 81-84 (Interview-Ian Lynch)
  • A/A Vol  46  No. 9 Sept 1992 Page 222-226
  • A/A Vol  46  No. 8 Aug 1992 Page 181-187 (Bird feeding survey)
  • A/A Vol  46  No. 5 May 1992 Page 117-122 (Back to basics)
  • A/A Vol  46  No. 4 Apr 1992 Page 97-99
  • A/A Vol  46  No. 1 Jan 1992 Page 17-21
  • A/A Vol  45  No. 12 Dec 1991 Page 300-302 (Mutations debate)
  • A/A Vol  45  No. 11 Nov 1991 Page 261-266 (Native plants- Part 2)
  • A/A Vol  45  No. 10 Oct 1991 Page 241-242 (Mutations etc. debate)
  • A/A Vol  45  No. 9 Sept 1991 Page 231-232 (Mutations debate)
  • A/A Vol  45  No. 8 Aug 1991 Page 185-189 (Harry Butler lecture)
  • A/A Vol  45  No. 8 Aug 1991 Page 191 (Mutations debate)
  • A/A Vol  45  No. 7 July 1991 Page 161-162 (Mutations debate)
  • A/A Vol  45  No. 7 July 1991 Page 163-166 (Interview-F. Barnicoat)
  • A/A Vol  45  No. 5 May 1991 Page 119-125 (Beginners mistakes)
  • A/A Vol  45  No. 4 Apr 1991 Page 79-80 (Europe)
  • A/A Vol  45  No. 4 Apr 1991 Page 87-90 (Pure species)
  • A/A Vol  45  No. 2  Feb 1991 Page 29-33 (Interview-C. Hibbert)
  • A/A Vol  44  No. 11  Nov 1990 Page 285-288 (Wildlife rehabilitation)
  • A/A Vol  44  No. 10 Oct 1990 Page 250-253 (Interview-R. Murray)
  • A/A Vol  44  No.7 July 1990 Page 173-175 (Interview-B. Cablewski)
  • A/A Vol  44  No. 6 Jun 1990 Page 138-142 (Aviculture beginnings in Aust.)
  • A/A Vol  44  No. 5 May 1990 Page 105-106 (Society's beginnings)
  • A/A Vol  44  No. 1 Jan 1990 Page16-21 (Interview-M. Shephard)
  • A/A Vol  43 No.1 Jan 1989 Page16-17 (Interview-G. Haywood)
  • A/A Vol  42 No. 3 Mar 1988 Page 61-662 (Part 1 & 2)
  • A/A Vol  41 No. 6 Jun 1987 Page 141-145 (Native plants)
  • A/A Vol  40 No. 11 Nov 1986 Page 263-265 (Fostering)
  • A/A Vol  40 No. 8 Aug 1986 Page 203-204 (Native plants)
  • A/A Vol  40 No. 5 May 1986 Page 114-118 (Interview - Mike Fiddler)
  • A/A Vol  39 No. 10 Oct 1985 Page 238-240 (Mike Fiddler)
  • A/A Vol  39 No. 7 Jul 1985 Page 162-164 (Fostering)
  • A/A Vol  39 No. 5 May 1985 Page 112-114
  • A/A Vol  38 No. 7 Jul 1984 Page 147-148 (Sexing Aust. Waxbills)
  • A/A Vol  38 No. 7 Jul 1984 Page 160-174 (1983 breeding register)
  • A/A Vol  33 No. 5  May 1979  Page 86-89 (Starting a collection)
  • A/A Vol  32 No. 11 Nov 1978 Page 172-174 (Finches from Queensland)
  • A/A Vol  32 No. 7 Jul 1978 Page 112-113 (Field observations)
  • A/A Vol  32 No. 2 Feb 1978 Page 24-25 (Inc drawings)
  • A/A Vol  31 No. 11 Nov 1977 Page 164-169 (Ground water quality)
  • A/A Vol  30 No. 6 Jun 1976 Page 85-86 (Nesting sites)
  • A/A Vol  28 No. 10 Oct 1974 Page 165-166 (Parasites)
  • A/A Vol  27 No. 11 Nov 1973 Page 199-201 (Aust. Finches)
  • A/A Vol  26 No. 7 Jul 1972 Page 102-106 (Aust finches)
  • A/A Vol  22 No. 11 Nov 1968 Page 166-170 (Aviaries at Healesville Sanctuary).
  • A/A Vol  20 No 1 Jan 1966 Page 5-8 (Wood swallows).
  • A/A Vol  13 No 6 Jun 1959 Page 87-90 (Bird banding).
  • A/A Vol   9 No 9 Sept 1955 Page 103, 105 (Sexing Aust finches).
  • A/A Vol   3 No 8 Aug 1949 Page 80-81.
  • A/A Vol   2 No 3 Mar 1948 Page 24-25 (Birds of yesteryear,  Still valid in 2005).
  • The Bulletin No 29, Apr 1945 Page 7 (Adelaide Zoo Pt 2).
  • The Bulletin No 29, Apr 1945 Page 5 - 6 (Change of sexual plumage).
  • The Bulletin No 29, Apr 1945 Page 2 - 4 (Breeding results).
  • The Bulletin No 29, Apr 1945 Page 2 (Adelaide Zoo).
  • The Bulletin No 28, Feb 1945 Page 6 - 8 (Adelaide Zoo).
  • The Bulletin No 27, Jan 1945 Page 2 - 3 (Preparation of sprouted seed).
  • The Bulletin No 26, Dec 1944 Page 3 - 4 (The use of glass in the aviary).
  • The Bulletin No 25, Nov 1944 Page 7 - 8 (Hand feeding a bird).
  • The Bulletin No 25, Nov 1944 Page 5 - 7 (The use of glass in the aviary).
  • The Bulletin No 25, Nov 1944 Page 2 - 5 (Loss of plumage colour).
  • The Bulletin No 24, Oct 1944 Page 7 - 8 (Observations on bird keeping).
  • The Bulletin No 24, Oct 1944 Page 6 - 7 (Loss of plumage colour).
  • The Bulletin No 24, Oct 1944 Page 4 - 5 (Feeding values of seed for cage birds).
  • The Bulletin No 23, Sept 1944 Page 6 - 7 (Some hints from a zoo director - Aviary & foods).
  • The Bulletin No 23, Sept 1944 Page 4 - 6 (Glass in the aviary).
  • The Bulletin No 23, Sept 1944 Page 2 - 3 (Loss of colour in plumage).
  • The Bulletin No 20, Jun 1944 Page 5 - 7 (Food value of grass seeds).
  • The Bulletin No 20, Jun 1944 Page 2 - 3 (Cultivation of the abnormally coloured).
  • The Bulletin No 19, May 1944 Page 4 - 6 (Acclimatizing the newly bought bird).
  • The Bulletin No 18, Apr 1944 Page 4 - 6 (Birds at the market).
  • The Bulletin No 17, Mar 1944 Page 3 - 4 (Bird keeping).
  • The Bulletin No 16, Jan 1944 Page 3 - 5 (Lyre Birds and birds of the Murray Swamps).
  • The Bulletin No 15, Dec 1943 Page 4 - 6 (Bird keeping).
  • The Bulletin No 13, Oct 1943 Page 5 - 6 (Keeping birds in condition).
  • The Bulletin No 13, Oct 1943 Page 3 - 4 (Aviary design).
  • The Bulletin No 12, Sept 1943 Page 4 - 5 (The experiences of a novice).
  • The Bulletin No 12, Sept 1943 Page 4 - 5 (News from the Interior of Aust.).
  • The Bulletin No 11, Aug 1943 Page 8.
  • The Bulletin No 11, Aug 1943 Page 7 - 8 (My method of keeping birds).
  • The Bulletin No 11, Aug 1943 Page 5 - 7 (Aviary visit).
  • The Bulletin No 10, July 1943 Page 7 - 8 (Catching birds).
  • The Bulletin No 4, Nov 1942 Page 1 (The breeding of finches - conclusion).
  • The Bulletin No 3, Sept 1942 Page 1 (The breeding of finches - Part 2).
  • The Bulletin No 2, July 1942 Page 3 (The breeding of finches).
  • Australian Birdkeeper
  • ABK Vol 18 Issue 11. Oct-Nov 2005 Page 676-681 (What's genetically pure and what's not)
  • ABK Vol 17 Issue 4. Aug-Sept 2004 Page 219-222 (Pt. 2  Grasses for finches).
  • ABK Vol 17 Issue 3. Jun-Jul 2004 Page 156-159 (Pt. 1 Grasses for finches).
  • ABK Vol 17 Issue 3. Jun-Jul 2004 Page 139-140.
  • ABK Vol 15 Issue 4. Aug-Sept 2002 Page 190-192
  • ABK Vol 16 Issue 8. Apr-May 2003 Page 437-441 (Grasswrens)
  • ABK Vol  7 Issue 6. Dec-Jan 1995 Page 290-293 (Aust Grass finches)
  • ABK Vol  6  Issue 8. Apr-May 1993 Page 373-377 (Plantscaping)
  • ABK Vol  5  Issue 2. Apr-May 1992 Page 76-78
  • ABK Vol  5  Issue 1. Feb-Mar 1992 Page 13-17 (Aviary Design)
  • ABK Vol  3  Issue 6. Dec-Jan 1991 Page 264-268
  • ABK Vol  3  Issue 4. Aug-Sept 1990 Page 155-159 (Plantscaping)
  • ABK Vol  3  Issue 4. Aug-Sept 1990 Page 166-168 (Aviary design)gn)
  • ABK Vol  1  Issue 4. Aug-Sept 1988 Page 124-126 (Aviary Management))
  • ABK Vol  1  Issue 1. 1987 Page 13-14 (Mixed Collections)

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Top of - Australian finches - Page is one of the world's largest and most informative avian or bird web sites.  Copyright 2002 - 2008 inc.  All rights reserved.  Disclaimer:  This web site has been compiled from material provided from a large number of sources.  Personal experience and personal contacts have been used.  Results vary according to factors such as environmental factors, aviary design and the physical and genetic backgrounds of all living birds/animals.  Every endeavour has been made to ensure the accuracy of the material but no responsibility is accepted by  for the accuracy of the material on this web site. The intent of this web site is to provide a "care sheet"  format and provide general material only.  Readers should rely upon their own enquiries in making any decisions relating to their own interests.