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4 lines for 2 months is only $25
Softbills are listed
separately. Click on "Softbills" page. Australian
covered are: Crimson Chat, White fronted Chat,
Fairy Wrens, Scarlet Honeyeater, Banded Lapwing,
Masked Lapwing, Silvereye, Spotted Pardalote, and Red
Wattlebird. Plus foreign Softbills: Bulbul,
Pekin Robin, Skylark and Silver eared Mesia.
Finches and Softbills are generally quiet
birds and unlikely to offend neighbours. Most finches weigh less than
30 grams. Many less than 20 grams. Some 7 grams or less!!
Only Australian finches held by private aviculturists
will be listed and for simplicity no hyphens have been used in the
18 species of Australian
finches can be kept and bred in captivity in Australia, subject to
permit requirements of each Australian State or Territory.
Australian finches are not renown for their singing abilities but are
colourful, entertaining birds suitable for a aviary. Some species
make ideal beginners birds such as Zebra finches and a good pair could
be purchased for about $20 while some of the rarer species are only for
the experienced specialist breeders and can cost $1500 or more per pair.
All 18 are covered on this site.
Australian finches belong
to the order of birds called Passeriforms or perching birds.
Family = Estrildidae.
All Australian finches must
Clean fresh water
Adequate supply of
nutritious balanced seed diet
Provision of ripe or
semi-ripe seed heads if applicable
Access to clean fresh
fruit/s and/or vegetables or leafy green vegetables where applicable
Consistent supply of
foods. Sudden change/s of diet should be avoided. The
phasing in or phasing out of foods should be done on a gradual
basis. Sudden changes may cause digestive upsets in the parent
birds and/or the young birds
Good quality source of
calcium and essential minerals such as found in cuttlefish bone or a
quality commercial product
Safe dry aviary devoid
of vermin and pests
A regular cage or
aviary cleaning program
Access to appropriate
levels of sunlight in an aviary situation
Protection from cold
winds or draughts, winter rains and inappropriate bad weather
stressful summer weather such as extreme temperatures
A safe place to build a
nest and have sufficient materials to build a good quality nest.
After the first nest has been built, sufficient nest material must
be made available to reline or rebuild subsequent nests or to
totally build a new nest.
The removal of young
birds once they have become fully independent if there is a threat
of aggression from a parent bird. Allow sufficient aviary or
cage space for the young to be safely housed while they grow to
breeding age or ready to sell
A place where sick, ill
or stressed birds can be housed to maximize the chances of full
recovery and to minimize the risk of transmitting parasites and/or
pathogens to other birds
An owner with the phone number and address of a
local veterinarian and if available the nearest avian veterinarian
A colony is more than two pairs. i.e. three or more
pairs are required to form a successful colony
Time to fully develop and mature before starting to
breed, especially the hens
It is assumed that
all the above items are practised and used in
conjunction with the details outlined on each species web page.
The trapping of wild
birds was deemed illegal in the mid 1980's. All aviary birds
are now descendants of captive bred birds. It is essential to
maintain lines of pure normal coloured birds as well as allowing the
development of colour mutations for the aviary and pet bird trade.
Maintaining true-to-type body size and proportion should also be a
prime concern when selecting breeding birds. Non true-to-type
birds should be sold as pets that are not to be bred from.
Traits such as the innate ability to build a nest similar in
construction and quality to the wild birds should be recognised and
recorded and may be used as a valid selling point when birds are
sold or swapped for the prime purpose of breeding. In
generations to come it would be sad to see these finches all
breeding in "budgie" breeding boxes or canary style nests stuffed
with some grasses and some soft lining material. Of course the
construction of a wild bird nest is dependent on the provision of
suitable places for the nests to be built. Have we provided
the best sites, shrubs and or trees for the prospective
parents? Have we supplied them with the most suitable
construction material and nest lining materials?
Families of finches: There are 4 major
Families of finches. Australian finches belong to the
family Estrildidae. There are 18 species of Australian
finches recognised and described.
are incapable of doing any serious damage to timber so the aviary
frame and fittings can safely be made from inexpensive, easy to
build materials such as hardwood and Pine softwood timber. Serious
consideration should be given to the use of mouse proof wire (approx
7 mm). Although the mouse proof wire is more expensive, it is
easier to keep the rodents out than to eradicate the rodents (mice etc.) once
they have got inside. Peace of mind, not pieces of baby birds
or eggs. In the southern Australian States, north facing, fully covered
aviaries/flights are the
most popular and successful for outside aviaries.
Australian finches generally do better in an aviary than
in cages or cabinets. Breeding in an indoor cage or cabinet is usually
unsuccessful. Zebra finches are an exception and commonly
housed and bred in canary style cages.
Most Australian finches are naturally small birds. If they
are placed in an ornamental cage, or a cage that has a wire cage
front that is typically used on canary or budgie cages, care must be
taken to ensure none of the birds are able to get through the wire
cage bars. Initially the young are often smaller than the
parent birds so if the young are bred in, or temporarily housed in,
one of these cages, they will have to be monitored to ensure they do
not escape. Special finch cage fronts can be purchased and
these wire fronts have a closer spacing between the bars and that
prevents the birds getting their head through and makes escapes almost impossible. Mouse proof wire mesh ( 7mm )
or 10mm wire mesh can be used for all or part of the cage front.
- Diet: In the wild, mostly grass seeds and insects
but click on "Feeding birds" for more
details on the nutrition of Australian Finches. Specific
species details are on the individual species page. Many
species spend a significant amount of time foraging on the ground. Basic seed mix should include
seed, White French Millet, Japanese Millet, and Yellow and Red
Other locally available seeds can be offered to the birds in
separate bowls. Green leafy vegetables, some fruits, seeding grasses and some
flowering grasses such as Chickweed and Dandelions should be
included in the diet. Check with local aviculturalists to
ascertain which green foods are safe and available. Soaked or
sprouted seed can be offered if available. Apple, orange and
pear can be offered to the birds and enjoyed by many species.
Livefood is essential for successful breeding of most Australian
finches. The supply of cuttlefish bone, calcium grits and
insoluble grits should be available year round.
- Eggs, egg products, egg shells,
egg mixes. Why do we feed egg products to birds?
They are not a balanced food for birds. The mix can
deteriorate rapidly in the warmer months. There are better
alternatives than feeding their relatives as part of their food. Ban
the sale, promotion or use of eggs, egg products, egg shells,
egg mixes as a food for birds.
In the wild they inhabit open forest, grassland or savannahs close to
water. Some have adapted well to cultivated farmlands and
urban areas and the provision of more permanent water availability
such as cattle and sheep water troughs. In an aviary, shrubs
and low growing trees with tall growing grasses can help imitate the
- Shrubs and trees:
Only add plants (including grasses) that are known to be totally
safe for birds. Plants can provide an escape area or protection from more aggressive birds
including a mate, give legs and feet exercise, some provide a minor
source if insects, some provide a supply of nectars and or seeds,
some leaves may be incorporated into a nest, provide a natural nest
site, modify the environment of an aviary by providing some
protection from wind, sun, rain. Some rapidly growing shrubs
or trees may need regular pruning to prevent roof damage and to help
maintain the density of the plant/s. A pruning routine can be
used to ensure the plants do not encroach into the flight path of
the birds or place too much shade in the aviary. Plants within
the aviary can influence the humidity, temperature and light levels
within the aviary. If you intend to add parrots to a planted
aviary, the parrots will usually destroy most or all of the plants.
Too many finches in the aviary may also cause the plants to be
defoliated faster than the plants can grow and end up dying because
Mutual preening: Most Australian finches engage in mutual preening. They maintain body contact while sleeping and
resting and are often seen in close groups all maintaining contact
with at least one other bird.
- Nests: Most
nest are built in thick shrubs or small trees. Hen and
cock birds both build the nest. The breeding nest is a covered dome shape
and constructed from assorted lengths of grasses and lined with
feathers, soft grasses or soft material and most have a side tunnel entrance.
Some species will also build a roosting nest which is used outside
breeding season. Start preparing for breeding season a month
or two prior to the projected nesting date by purchasing or
procuring all the necessary materials. Don't wait till a bird
starts laying eggs on the floor. Don't get caught with
insufficient materials for the birds to build a sturdy nest. A
poor quality nest may result in the loss of the eggs or young or the
parent birds abandoning the partly constructed nest. There is
a wide range of materials available from Bird clubs, good pet shops
and bird dealers. Remember, the nest is only as good as the
materials you provide. Short lengths of teased natural fibre
hessian, soft pampas grass heads and coconut fibre can be offered.
November grass and Swamp grass are favourites of the birds that line
their nests and these grasses can be purchased from many Aviculture
clubs or from bird dealers. Synthetic nest materials should be
- Nest inspection: Nest
inspections for finches is often very difficult and impractical.
Most finches are very intolerant of nest inspections and this
practise may result in the loss of the whole clutch.
Most species average 3 to
6 white eggs per nest with the hen and cock bird sharing incubation and
brooding. Incubation often starts when the 3rd or 4th egg has been
laid. Eggs hatch in about 12 to 14 days and the young
leave the nest about 20- 22 days later. About 21 - 28 days later
they are independent from their parents and may be removed to
another aviary. Care must be taken to ensure the young are not
removed from the parent birds before they are fully independent.
Remove the young too early and the young bird may die of starvation. By about 4 - 6 months of age
they have developed their adult plumage. In the wild, finches
breed when their preferred foods and water are most abundant and
environmental conditions are most suitable. In the modern
aviary or bird breeding room the environmental conditions can be
manipulated and with the availability of quality feeds the birds may
choose to breed all year round. Breeders now have the control
when and how many clutches their birds are allowed to raise each
year. Allowing the young birds to fully mature, limiting the
finches to 2 or 3 clutches followed by a rest break, generally
increases the number of years the birds can successfully produce
strong healthy young. This will also help the adult birds maintain better
health, body weight and the increased resistance to diseases and or
infections. Fertility in an aviary averages about 75 - 80%.
The duration of incubation, fledging, and age to independence is
influenced by the fitness and health of the parent birds, the
quality and quantity of the foods, as well as
the climatic conditions during these phases. As a general
statement, the colder the temperature, the longer the eggs take to
hatch and slower the baby birds grow.
- Leg rings:
Leg rings are placed on the
young for several reasons. Closed leg rings are ideal for
those birds that have to be tracked or identified because of their
genetic back ground. Many young birds can leave the nest and
appear similar to a parent bird, usually the hen. If the
generations are mixed it is easy to sell the wrong bird or pair up a
parent bird with one of the daughters or sons. It is extremely
important to place the correct size ring on the bird and to do it at
the correct age of the young bird and placed on the young bird using
the correct methods. Contact an experienced finch breeder,
bird club or
avian veterinarian if you have any doubts on any aspects of this
practise. Some parent birds may abandon the young or the nest
if the nest is inspected or a breeder tries to place a ring on any
of the young. In this situation a split ring can be placed on
the young after the young bird/s has left the nest. Some
species of finches can have a closed ring placed on their leg just
after they have left the nest. Wait too long and the bird's
leg will have grown too large to safely place the ring on that bird. Leg rings
come in a wide range of single colours or multi-coloured and can
also have numbers stamped on them. A particular colour can,
for example, be used to identify a breeding line or the year the
bird was bred. If split rings are used there is the risk of
the ring being pulled off by the bird or of the ring accidentally
coming off. Equally the breeder can remove the split ring and
replace it with another colour. Replacing a split ring is
useful when you want to change the partners of a mated pair or if a
particular bird has turned out not to be the sex it was initially
thought to be. Inexperienced breeders should obtain
professional advice before removing or replacing split ring/s.
- Lifespan: Australian finches are
generally good breeders. Most finches are mature enough to
start breeding at 12 months of age. They will breed well for
about 4 years, mostly from the second year to the fifth year
inclusive. Total life span is generally about 6 to 8
years. Captive bred finches probably live about 2 years longer
in a suitable aviary situation than in the wild.
- Breeding in the wild
generally occurs when the food supply is most
abundant and 2 or 3 clutches per breeding season is normal for most
species if the conditions are suitable.
Government Regulations &
By-Laws: Refer to "Government Laws" web page.
A basic aviary design for finches or softbills is 3 metres long,
2 metres wide and about 2.1 metres high (10 x 6.5 x 7 feet), planted aviary, with a fully covered roof but click on "Housing
Birds" web page for more details on the housing of Australian Finches.
Top of -Australian finches- Page
- Australian Aviculture
A/A Vol 60 No. 8 Aug 2006 Page 162-165 (The good -
the bad - and the ugly by Mike Fidler).
A/A Vol 60 No. 8 Aug 2006 Page 157-159 (Life with
birds - J. McGrath).
A/A Vol 60 No. 5 May 2006 Page 98-100 (Birding in
the Kimberleys - 2005).
- A/A Vol 60 No. 4 Apr 2006 Page 74-77 (Visit to Europe - finches,
Dr Gary Fitt).
- A/A Vol 60 No. 4 Apr 2006 Page 69-71 (Advantages & disadvantages
of Bird keeping in hot climates)
- A/A Vol 60 No. 2 Feb 2006 Page 29-30 (Finch management for
juniors & beginners)
- A/A Vol 59 No. 11 Nov 2005 Page 252-253 (Use of crop needles)
- A/A Vol 59 No. 11 Nov 2005 Page 246-247 (Maintain those plants)
- A/A Vol 59 No. 10 Oct 2005 Page 233-235 (The case for
feeding Green foods - by Dr D. Madill).
- A/A Vol 59 No. 7 July 2005 Page
162 - 163 (Return to Aviculture pt 2).
- A/A Vol 59 No. 5 May 2005 Page
116 - 117 (Return to Aviculture pt 1).
- A/A Vol 58 No. 10 Oct 2004 Page 221-222
(Status of Aust finches in Vic.)
- A/A Vol 58 No. 9 Sept 2004 Page 210-211 (Book
review-Atlas of Aust. birds).
- A/A Vol 58 No. 8 Aug 2004 Page 186
- 191 (Domestication of captive finches)
- A/A Vol 58 No. 8 Aug 2004 Page 172-176
(Interview - Gary Fitt)
- A/A Vol 58 No. 7
Jul 2004 Page 154-155 (M. Fidler Nestboxes and perches).
- A/A Vol 58 No. 7
Jul 2004 Page 145-148 (The basics).
- A/A Vol 57 No. 10 Oct 2003 Page 223-225 (Suspended cages)
- A/A Vol 57 No 9 Sept 2003 Page 206-207 (Avicultural lament -
- A/A Vol 57 No. 5 May 2003 Page 95-96 (P. Austin)
- A/A Vol 57 No. 1 Jan 2003 Page 9-13 (Birdroom)
- A/A Vol 56 No. 10 Oct 2002 Page 214-217
- A/A Vol 56 No. 4 Apr 2002 Page 81-82 (Mineral block)
- A/A Vol 56 No. 1 Jan 2002 Page 7 (R. Low)
- A/A Vol 55 No. 8 Aug 2001 Page 176-176 (Breeding in Tasmania)
- A/A Vol 55 No. 5 May 2001 Page 97-98 (Austerity diet)
- A/A Vol 55 No. 5 May 2001 Page 119-120 (Temp. & feeding)
- A/A Vol 55 No. 4 Apr 2001 Page 73-75 (M. Pollard)
- A/A Vol 53 No. 10 Oct 1999 Page 215-217
- A/A Vol 53 No. 5 May 1999 Page 97-98 (Mentoring)
- A/A Vol 53 No. 4 Apr 1999 Page 82-86 (Interview R. Low)
- A/A Vol 53 No. 1
Jan 1999 Page 15-16 (Improving the quality of our birds
- A/A Vol 52 No.11 Nov 1998 Page 256-258 (Pellet food)
- A/A Vol 51 No. 11 Nov 1997 Page 243-250 (S. Gelis -
- A/A Vol 51 No. 10 Oct 1997 Page 217-218 (Keeping birds
- A/A Vol 51 No. 6 Jun 1997 Page 121-122 (Light)
- A/A Vol 51 No.2 Feb 1997 Page 28-32 (Vic. population 1993-96)
- A/A Vol 50 No. 5 May 1996 Page 118-119 (Status of Aust.
finches in Vic. aviaries, Sept 1995)
- A/A Vol 49 No. 6 Jun 1995 Page 143 (Perch)
- A/A Vol 49 No. 5 May 1995 Page114-117 (Interview - C. Smeelie)
- A/A Vol 48 No. 4 Apr 1994 Page 83-88 (Studbooks)
- A/A Vol 48 No. 1 Jan 1994 Page 14 (Lights)
- A/A Vol 47 No. 11 Nov 1993 Page 266-269 (Mixed collections)
- A/A Vol 47 No. 6 Jun 1993 Page 125-127 (Indoor flights)
- A/A Vol 47 No. 4 Apr 1993 Page 81-84 (Interview-Ian Lynch)
- A/A Vol 46 No. 9 Sept 1992 Page 222-226
- A/A Vol 46 No. 8 Aug 1992 Page 181-187 (Bird feeding
- A/A Vol 46 No. 5 May 1992 Page 117-122 (Back to basics)
- A/A Vol 46 No. 4 Apr 1992 Page 97-99
- A/A Vol 46 No. 1 Jan 1992 Page 17-21
- A/A Vol 45 No. 12 Dec 1991 Page 300-302 (Mutations debate)
- A/A Vol 45 No. 11 Nov 1991 Page 261-266 (Native plants-
- A/A Vol 45 No. 10 Oct 1991 Page 241-242 (Mutations etc.
- A/A Vol 45 No. 9 Sept 1991 Page 231-232 (Mutations debate)
- A/A Vol 45 No. 8 Aug 1991 Page 185-189 (Harry Butler
- A/A Vol 45 No. 8 Aug 1991 Page 191 (Mutations debate)
- A/A Vol 45 No. 7 July 1991 Page 161-162 (Mutations debate)
- A/A Vol 45 No. 7 July 1991 Page 163-166 (Interview-F.
- A/A Vol 45 No. 5 May 1991 Page 119-125 (Beginners mistakes)
- A/A Vol 45 No. 4 Apr 1991 Page 79-80 (Europe)
- A/A Vol 45 No. 4 Apr 1991 Page 87-90 (Pure species)
- A/A Vol 45 No. 2 Feb 1991 Page 29-33 (Interview-C.
- A/A Vol 44 No. 11 Nov 1990 Page 285-288 (Wildlife
- A/A Vol 44 No. 10 Oct 1990 Page 250-253 (Interview-R. Murray)
- A/A Vol 44 No.7 July 1990 Page 173-175 (Interview-B. Cablewski)
- A/A Vol 44 No. 6 Jun 1990 Page 138-142 (Aviculture beginnings in
- A/A Vol 44 No. 5 May 1990 Page 105-106 (Society's
- A/A Vol 44 No. 1 Jan 1990 Page16-21 (Interview-M. Shephard)
- A/A Vol 43 No.1 Jan 1989 Page16-17 (Interview-G. Haywood)
- A/A Vol 42 No. 3 Mar 1988 Page 61-662
(Part 1 & 2)
- A/A Vol 41 No. 6 Jun 1987 Page 141-145
- A/A Vol 40 No. 11 Nov 1986 Page 263-265
- A/A Vol 40 No. 8 Aug 1986 Page 203-204
- A/A Vol 40 No. 5 May 1986 Page 114-118
(Interview - Mike Fiddler)
- A/A Vol 39 No. 10 Oct 1985 Page 238-240
- A/A Vol 39 No. 7 Jul 1985 Page 162-164
- A/A Vol 39 No. 5 May 1985 Page 112-114
- A/A Vol 38 No. 7 Jul 1984 Page 147-148
(Sexing Aust. Waxbills)
- A/A Vol 38 No. 7 Jul 1984 Page 160-174
(1983 breeding register)
- A/A Vol 33 No. 5 May 1979 Page 86-89
(Starting a collection)
- A/A Vol 32 No. 11 Nov 1978 Page 172-174
(Finches from Queensland)
- A/A Vol 32 No. 7 Jul 1978 Page 112-113
- A/A Vol 32 No. 2 Feb 1978 Page 24-25
- A/A Vol 31 No. 11 Nov 1977 Page
(Ground water quality)
- A/A Vol 30 No. 6 Jun 1976 Page 85-86
- A/A Vol 28 No. 10 Oct 1974 Page
- A/A Vol 27 No. 11 Nov 1973 Page
199-201 (Aust. Finches)
- A/A Vol 26 No. 7
Jul 1972 Page 102-106 (Aust finches)
- A/A Vol 22 No. 11 Nov 1968 Page 166-170 (Aviaries at Healesville
- A/A Vol 20 No 1 Jan 1966 Page 5-8 (Wood swallows).
- A/A Vol 13 No 6 Jun 1959 Page 87-90 (Bird banding).
- A/A Vol 9 No 9 Sept 1955 Page 103, 105 (Sexing Aust finches).
- A/A Vol 3 No 8 Aug 1949 Page 80-81.
- A/A Vol 2 No 3 Mar 1948 Page 24-25 (Birds of yesteryear,
Still valid in 2005).
- The Bulletin No 29, Apr 1945 Page 7 (Adelaide Zoo Pt 2).
- The Bulletin No 29, Apr 1945 Page 5 - 6 (Change of sexual
- The Bulletin No 29, Apr 1945 Page 2 - 4 (Breeding results).
- The Bulletin No 29, Apr 1945 Page 2 (Adelaide Zoo).
- The Bulletin No 28, Feb 1945 Page 6 - 8 (Adelaide Zoo).
- The Bulletin No 27, Jan 1945 Page 2 - 3 (Preparation of sprouted
- The Bulletin No 26, Dec 1944 Page 3 - 4 (The use of glass in the
- The Bulletin No 25, Nov 1944 Page 7 - 8 (Hand feeding a bird).
- The Bulletin No 25, Nov 1944 Page 5 - 7 (The use of glass in the
- The Bulletin No 25, Nov 1944 Page 2 - 5 (Loss of plumage
- The Bulletin No 24, Oct 1944 Page 7 - 8 (Observations on bird
- The Bulletin No 24, Oct 1944 Page 6 - 7 (Loss of plumage
- The Bulletin No 24, Oct 1944 Page 4 - 5 (Feeding values of seed
for cage birds).
- The Bulletin No 23, Sept 1944 Page 6 - 7 (Some hints from a zoo
director - Aviary & foods).
- The Bulletin No 23, Sept 1944 Page 4 - 6 (Glass in the aviary).
- The Bulletin No 23, Sept 1944 Page 2 - 3 (Loss of colour in
- The Bulletin No 20, Jun 1944 Page 5 - 7 (Food value of grass
- The Bulletin No 20, Jun 1944 Page 2 - 3 (Cultivation of the
- The Bulletin No 19, May 1944 Page 4 - 6 (Acclimatizing the newly
- The Bulletin No 18, Apr 1944 Page 4 - 6 (Birds at the market).
- The Bulletin No 17, Mar 1944 Page 3 - 4 (Bird keeping).
- The Bulletin No 16, Jan 1944 Page 3 - 5 (Lyre Birds and birds of
the Murray Swamps).
- The Bulletin No 15, Dec 1943 Page 4 - 6 (Bird keeping).
- The Bulletin No 13, Oct 1943 Page 5 - 6 (Keeping birds in
- The Bulletin No 13, Oct 1943 Page 3 - 4 (Aviary design).
- The Bulletin No 12, Sept 1943 Page 4 - 5 (The experiences of a
- The Bulletin No 12, Sept 1943 Page 4 - 5 (News from the Interior
- The Bulletin No 11, Aug 1943 Page 8.
- The Bulletin No 11, Aug 1943 Page 7 - 8 (My method of keeping
- The Bulletin No 11, Aug 1943 Page 5 - 7 (Aviary visit).
- The Bulletin No 10, July 1943 Page 7 - 8 (Catching birds).
- The Bulletin No 4, Nov 1942 Page 1
(The breeding of finches - conclusion).
- The Bulletin No 3, Sept 1942 Page 1
(The breeding of finches - Part 2).
- The Bulletin No 2, July 1942 Page 3
(The breeding of finches).
- Australian Birdkeeper
- ABK Vol 18 Issue 11. Oct-Nov 2005 Page 676-681 (What's
genetically pure and what's not)
- ABK Vol 17 Issue 4. Aug-Sept 2004 Page 219-222
(Pt. 2 Grasses for finches).
- ABK Vol 17 Issue 3. Jun-Jul
2004 Page 156-159 (Pt. 1 Grasses for finches).
- ABK Vol 17 Issue 3. Jun-Jul
2004 Page 139-140.
- ABK Vol 15 Issue 4. Aug-Sept 2002 Page 190-192
- ABK Vol 16 Issue 8. Apr-May 2003 Page
- ABK Vol 7 Issue 6. Dec-Jan 1995 Page 290-293 (Aust Grass
- ABK Vol 6 Issue 8. Apr-May 1993 Page 373-377 (Plantscaping)
- ABK Vol 5 Issue 2. Apr-May 1992 Page 76-78
- ABK Vol 5 Issue 1. Feb-Mar 1992 Page 13-17 (Aviary Design)
- ABK Vol 3 Issue 6. Dec-Jan 1991 Page 264-268
- ABK Vol 3 Issue 4. Aug-Sept 1990 Page 155-159 (Plantscaping)
- ABK Vol 3 Issue 4. Aug-Sept 1990 Page 166-168 (Aviary design)gn)
- ABK Vol 1 Issue 4. Aug-Sept 1988 Page 124-126 (Aviary
- ABK Vol 1 Issue 1. 1987 Page 13-14 (Mixed Collections)
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